The Cambodian Government: A Guide to the Country’s Political Structure

The Cambodian Government: A Guide to the Country’s Political Structure

Cambodia’s Prime Minister Hun Sen attends the 35th ASEAN Summit meeting (Plenary) in Nonthaburi province on the outskirts of Bangkok, Thailand.

Cambodia is a country located in Southeast Asia and is officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia. The country has a rich history, dating back to the ancient Khmer Empire, but its modern political system is relatively new. During the mid-20th century, Cambodia was under monarchy rule, but in the 1970s, it underwent a transformation into a communist state. Today, Cambodia is a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, with King Norodom Sihamoni serving as the head of state and Prime Minister Hun Sen serving as the head of government. In this article, we will take a closer look at the political structure of Cambodia and how it operates.

The Constitution of Cambodia

Cambodia’s political structure is defined by its constitution, which was adopted in 1993 and has undergone several amendments since then. The constitution outlines the country’s system of government and sets out the rights and duties of its citizens. It establishes a parliamentary system, in which the National Assembly is the legislative branch and the King is the symbolic head of state. The National Assembly elects the Prime Minister, who is responsible for leading the government and the cabinet.

The National Assembly

The National Assembly is the legislative branch of the government and is responsible for making laws and policies. The Cambodian parliament is composed of 123 members who are elected for a term of five years. The National Assembly has the power to pass laws, approve the budget, and approve international treaties. It also has the power to impeach the Prime Minister and other government officials.

The Executive Branch

The executive branch of the government is responsible for implementing the laws and policies passed by the National Assembly. The Council of Ministers, composed of senior government officials, assists the Prime Minister in leading the executive branch. The King appoints the Prime Minister on the recommendation of the National Assembly, and the Prime Minister is responsible for the overall administration of the government.

The Judicial Branch

The judicial branch of the government is responsible for interpreting the laws and settling disputes. The Cambodian judicial system consists of the Supreme Court, lower courts, and judges who are appointed by the King. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land and has the power to review decisions made by lower courts. The legislative and executive branches do not have authority over the judicial branch, which operates independently. The decisions made by the Cambodian judicial branch cannot be overruled by any other branches of government.


A parliamentary representative democratic monarchy is the political system of Cambodia, as defined by its constitution. The National Assembly is the legislative branch of the government, the Prime Minister leads the executive branch, and the Supreme Court and lower courts make up the judicial branch. Although Cambodia has faced many challenges, including political corruption and human rights violations, its political structure provides a framework for stability and growth. The country’s political future will depend on the continued development of its institutions, the rule of law, and the protection of its citizens’ rights and freedoms.

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